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December 4, 2011
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In Scots, in addition to 'tae frain' we also have 'tae speir', akin to Swedish 'spörja'.
I've always like the word 'wlite'. We've lost all those good wl- words in English.
For 'majority', Dutch has, quite pleasingly, 'meerderheid', literally 'morehood'. German, of course, has 'Mehrheit' also.
I do like 'wordtide' for 'tense'. The Dutch word for verb is 'werkwoord' and in Frisian it's 'tiidwoord', literally ''workword' and 'timeword'. I imagine in Anglo-Saxon says the word 'verbum' was probably used.
Ah I see. I imagine the noun 'gefræge' took on the sense of the adjective 'gefrǽge'. My Anglo-Saxon dictionary give 'hearsay' first for 'gefræge'. 'Renowned hearsay' is pretty good for 'reputation'.
I saw that you wrote 'adjective' also. I haven't looked up Anglo-Saxon words for grammatical terms yet (I imagine there's some mediaevel Latin primer written in Anglo-Saxon that has a few) but when I studied Icelandic I always liked the words the Icelandic Language Institute invented to keep linguistic purism. 'Lýsingorð' for 'adjective', literally 'illuminating word' from 'lýsa', 'to light up' and 'orð', word. Lightingword? I always liked 'Þolfall' for 'accusative case' which means something like 'the suffering case' or 'the case when something has to be withstood'. Good old nordic gloom. (The Icelanders also have some pretty good invented words. 'Sími', Old Norse, 'wire' for 'telephone'.) The Dutch just calls adjectives 'bijvoeglijke naamwoorden', something like 'attaching noun'. A conjunction is a 'voegswoord' which seems too similar to me.
All right, in Ælfric's 'Grammatical Terminology' a few are given. He borrows 'casus' for 'casus','part' for 'pars', and 'declinung' for 'declinatio'. He does calque 'tid' for 'tempus' (tense) and 'nama' for 'nomen' (noun), and 'dæl' for 'pars' (part of speech). I do like his 'dælnimend' for 'participium' (participle) and 'betwuxaworpenes' for 'interjectio', and 'samodswegend' for 'consonans'. I'm sure if I perused this book more I'd find some better ones.
And aye, 'leid' in Lallans is pronounced a bit like /li:d/.
Gefrain I would imagine comes from 'gefrignan', 'gefrægn', 'frugnon', 'find out' from 'frignon' 'to ask'. This must be related to German 'fragen' and Dutch 'vragen', both 'to ask'. This is a very Teutonic idea of 'finding out through asking' rather than 'discovering'. This is how word spreads of fame and glory.
As you're talking about 'wale' I might bring up the Scots language. Here in Glasgow you sometimes hear it spoken and its vocabulary is a hoard of obsolete Old English and Middle English words. I've got a Scots - English / English - Scots dictionary which is full of modern, spoken forms of Anglo Saxon, Middle English, and Old Norse words.
Hence we get 'leid' for 'language' [Middle English 'lede', from 'leden', 'leoden' (language), from Old English 'lēoden' (national language, literally, of the people) from Old English 'lēode', (people)] which could stand in for 'dialect'
and 'thede' for 'country', 'region', 'province', 'people', or 'kind' [Middle English, from Old English 'þēod' (nation, people, tribe, race), from Proto-Germanic 'þeudō' (people, nation); akin to Modern English, 'Dutch', Modern German 'Deutsch' (German), Middle Dutch 'diet' (people), Middle High German 'diet' (people, folk, nation), Norwegian 'tjod' (people, nation), Icelandic þjóð (people, nation)] which could stand in for 'ethnicity'.
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