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Joined: June 19, 2011
Comments posted: 616
Votes received: 342

Native English speaker. Conversant in German, Russian, Spanish, and Anglo-Saxon.

Ferþu Hal!

I hav a pilot's license (SEL certificate); I'm a certified diver (NAUI); I'v skydived and was qualified as a paratrooper in the Army (Airborne!); I was a soldier (MI, Armor, Engineer).

I workt for a corporation, was a law enforcement officer, and a business owner.

Bachelor's in Finance; minor in Economics Masters of Aeronautical Sciences

Strong backer of English spelling reform.


Now I'v written my first novel [ ] and I'm working on others.

Questions Submitted

What can I do besides...

October 8, 2011

Recent Comments

"Every time one writes the -our ending in English, then you're giving "homage" to France" - This is the sort of balderdash …
-- True is true whether it rankles one or not. There is no fonetic nor etymological grounds for the -our ending in many words. Colour is from Old French colour, from Latin color. The -our spelling is a holdover from OF. Thus, "ispo facto", it's a 'homage' to French. OTOH, If you say 'kəlo͝or, then by all means write it that way!

"I wasn't talking about the Gaels; I was talking about the Britons the Anglo-Saxons displaced,… "
-- I said Gaelic, which is a broader latter day word for the Celtic tung which is broken into sundry dialects (or sunder tungs even) to inhold Brythonic Celtic tho I don't think there are any speakers of Brythonic left. ... So my bad ... Let me say it this way: I don't speak a Gaelic/Celtic tung. English is a Teutonish tung so it's a red herring to bring up the Gaelic/Celtic dwellers that were there before the Saxons.

"So they get a by too" - Sorry! Haven't a clue what you're on about."
-- Go back to what you said earlier: "I also find that the Anglo-Saxons, (and Norsemen, or in fact anyone vaguely "teutonic") who also started off as invaders or raiders, seem to get a very easy ride in your view." …
-- Celtic words in English get a by too (along with the other Teutonish tungs). About the words that I'm hard on are the after 1066 French/Latin ones. It is said that Old Norse and Old English could be understood by the other. So when the Norse (to inhold the Danes) came, the words were so unalike as when the N-F came.

""The Takeover, in the end, brought in some 10,000 French/Latin words! Of those, about 75% are still with us."- I wonder why? Linguists usually reckon that it's because they were found to be useful."
-- "Useful"? Is that from one's feelings? Is that "useful" for that (1) they shove'd aside the Anglo word and thus made the gap that they then fill'd? Or (2) "useful" for that there was no word and they needed to be borrow'd? Is 'agile' any more "useful" than 'nimble'? I think most of those words fall under (1).

If one is trying to get business or money from the Norman-French (keep in mind that thruout most of this timeframe that French and Latin were the tungs of government, the courts, and the church) then words like 'agile' would be more useful! And that's why French/Latin words shove'd aside so many the Anglo words. The words didn't come into English from borrowing to fill a gap but from needing to deal with the Norman-French overlords. Same ol' tale … French/Latin good, English "rude". I don't know who Crystal is but what we know is that French was the tung of the king's court until 1399 and French, as well as Latin, was still noted in Parliament (parliament is a French begotten word) and the courts after than til well into 1400s. It recks not how much "Anglicization" of the Norman-French nobility had taken place, they still had to know French/Latin to deal with the government and courts. Now, the Norman-French nobility didn't switch off from French like one switches off a light! They only laid the French/Latin words on top of an English grammar frame. It's not as if the noble woke up and said, "I think I'll write nimble insted of agile today." He kept saying agile only in English. So for anyone to try say that the Norman-French had little impact on English is … to note your word … balderdash!

Anent Lanfranc and Stigand, you likely know that in this timeframe that the church and politics were tied at the hip. Even before the N-F, the bishops were said to be part of the Witenagemot. Indeed, it wasn't the Pope but King Edward who put Stigand in the spot of archdiocese of Canterbury! Do you truly think that it only "happen'd" that Stigand was besteaded a short time after Lucky Bill took over? Or that it only "happen'd" that Billy's friend Lanfranc was put in the spot? Or that it only "happen'd" that "Lanfranc accelerated the process of substituting Normans for Englishmen in all preferments of importance …"? That it only "happen'd" that Stigand was imprison'd and that Billy seiz'd all his land? … If you believe all those only "happen'd", then I hav a few bridges that I'd like to sell you!

Pinning dates on writs in OE … even in ME … is iffy at best and often given a wide range of years. However the Historical Bible Society has on their website:

In 1066, the Norman Conquest marked the beginning of the end of the Old English language and initiated profound changes in its vocabulary. The project of translating the Bible into Old English gradually ended after that process began.

I don't think that Lucky Bill gave a hoot about whether the Bible was being set into English or not. He had his man as the archbishop and he was more than willing to let the church do pretty much what it wanted as long as it back'd him.

I think one the first things to come out in ME for setting the Bible into English was the Ormulum c1150. Wikipedia says this:

Middle English Bible translations (1066-1500) covers the age of Middle English, beginning with the Norman conquest and ending about 1500. Aside from Wycliffe's Bible, this was not a fertile time for Bible translation. English literature was limited because French was the preferred language of the elite, and Latin was the preferred literary language in Medieval Western Europe.

I don't hate France … even dated a French woman for a while. I'v been to Paris and gave it my best shot, as bad as it was, at speaking French while I was there. France isn't trying to shove French down our throats. That was Lucky Bill and his henchmen. They started the ball going and set the mindset … the N-F nobility kept it up for a few hundred years but, sadly, otherwise most of the harm done to English has been from English speakers themselves who can't seem to break away from the awe that so many hold for French and Latin.

AnWulf May 9, 2013, 9:53pm

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- "inkhorn-terms" as "agile, education, harass, scientific, strenuous" - …

Narrowly speaking, the inkhorn years were ruffly between 1550 and 1650; more broadly, some put it to any unneeded latinate. Again, the narrower meaning of inkhorn is that it is an unneeded, made up latinate. A few put it to all outlander words. Mostly, the 'war of words' was about the latinates tho Robert Cawdrey did whinge about the French and Italian words brought back by some from their trips to France and Italy. Not all words brought in or made up (from Latin) in these years were inkhorns.

The word inkhorn is mainly for those Latinates (Anglicized Latin, tho sum might hav had a Greek root, they were mostly taken from the Latin shape) that were BOTH showy AND there was already another word for whatever they were cobbling together the latinate for (either an earlier French/Latin borrowing or an Anglo-Teutonish word).

*Agile - The Oxford Dict Online (OED). says it came into the tung in ME which would put it before the Inkhorn years (I know that agility is late ME); nonetheless, not needed … nimble, lightsome; shrewd, sharp, quick-witted.
*Education - not an inkhorn in the narrow look (1530s … before the inkhorn years), tho it is unneeded for 'learning, schooling, knowledj, teaching'.
*Harass - hardly an inkhorn, its roots are Teutonish (akin to harry, harrow, harum-scarum)
*Scientific - right timeframe but what word did it bestead? If there was not an earlier Fr./La. word or A-T word, then it's not an inkhorn. 'Science' itself is ME. I'd hav to look to see if there was a 'science-like' or something like that for an adjectiv.
*Strenuous - Right timeframe and not needed (a true inkhorn); there are other words like hard, tuff, ruff, tiring, backbreaking, asf.

You don't think that we're condition'd from almost from the first day of school that latinates somehow show a higher learning? Take a look at this list of "100 Words Every High School Graduate Should Know" Why the heck does anyone — much less a HS grad — need to know 'inculcate'? That only one among many that need to toss'd off that list.

There are folks who luv Latin … and that's fine. Only luv it when you speak Latin, not when speaking English. It was the Latin lovers who wrought even more havoc on English spelling. I can't blame 'debt' on the French lovers! The 'b' was put in by the LL. I can't blame the 's' in island on the FL … again, it was the LL.

Our forebears after 1066 held French/Latin up high while trampling on English as "rude". They didn't do it for that French was cool … that might hav been a small deal of it for some … but for that they had been it beaten into their heads in school (and still is). Many were made to learn Latin and French … but not the Old English roots. In olden of days of yore, university students HAD to speak Latin or French at ALL times on campus … even outside of the classroom! So it should amaze no one that academics are the biggest abusers of latinates followd by burocrats.

You whinge about being deem'd for the note of latinates but you and others are as willing, if not more so, to fordeem those who shun them! And that's the whole nub of it isn't it! … Why should those showy latinates be thought of as any better than ones of the A-T root? Only that we'v been so taught … or some might say … brainwash'd.

You're right … One shouldn't look down (condescend) on those whose writings are heavy with the latinates; rather, one should feel ruth for them for often they're trying to dazzle with words rather than saying anything meaningful. At least the penny-a-liners where getting paid to make stretch their writings … and when I was told that term papers need to be X pages long, heck yeah I often put in the longest words I could find but it was still less than those who were in fields where they would like spend their lives in academia … like history … But why do others put out the long-winded, idle words for wit? Truthfully, when they pull out a whole boatload of latinates, it's hard not to laff at 'em.

I'll leave you with a bit of an Oxford sermon from "Recollections of Oxford," by G. V. Cox:

"A system thus hypothetically elaborated is, after all, but an inexplicable concatenation of hyperbolical incongruity."

Inexplicable indeed! LMAO!

AnWulf May 9, 2013, 9:30pm

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I don't think that I'v ever said to "get rid of" the latinates. We can't do that. We can however, trim our noting of them and put many on the dusty sheets of the wordbooks but even then there will be a fulsomeness of latinates for you and others. Some do fit a nook and, believe it or not, there are some that I even like.

How sad it is that someone would laff at anyone who shuns latinates and notes the Anglo-rooted words of the mother tung. What does that say about folks who would rather note the showy (pretentious) latinates? Does it make them look smarter or more snobbish? I say the latter. The flaunting of unneeded latinates is not a token of higher learning or smartness ... only a willingness to cram them in and a want to show off since one has given so much time to learn them.

As for spelling, many of my spellings are either from those put forth by sundry spelling reform groops (American, British, and Australian ... see or for an overhaul see ) or older spellings found thru the 1800s or even the early 1900s.

Anglo-Saxon spelling would look something like this: hwīl not bæd in itself, it has oþer stafs (such as the thorn - þ and ash - æ) that are uncnown (unknown) to most todæg.

Spencer didn't note A-S spelling in "The Faery Queen" when he wrote, but what he wrote was often, not always, but often more fonetic:

At her so pitteous cry was much amoou'd ... [amoovd insted of amoved]
Her champion stout, and for to ayde his frend, ... [frend insted of friend]
Againe his wonted angry weapon proou'd: ... [proovd insted of proved]

Here is a poem from the Simplified Spelling Society:

Draw a breth for progress,
Tred abrest ahed.
Fight agenst old spelling,
Better "red" than "read".
Spred the words at brekfast,
Mesure them in bed,
Dream of welth and tresure,
Better "ded" than "dead"

If you want to see something that will truly hurt your eyes look at spelling as chosen by an "international vote":

AnWulf May 9, 2013, 9:24pm

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@jayles ... Se móna acwanc ... The moon was a-quench'd (eclips'd) ... so, a "quench'd moon" ... or maybe a "hidden moon". I kind of like a "shadow moon".

Anglish is a way to stretch the thinking. I might not go as far as William Barnes when he put forth "fireghost" for electricity (BTW, electricity is a word crafted by an Englishman in 1600) but he did hav some good ones.

AnWulf May 9, 2013, 9:19pm

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@Spydervr495 ... Yes, that should be 'owing to' ... I don't proofread ... I know that I'll make typos so I drive on.

@Jayles ... I'v always said that I mind the short ones so much. But there are many of the short ones that don't need to be there either. If someone says, "Keep me apprised." I'll ask, "A prize from what?" :)

@WW ... I'll hav to break this up ... if my net link will hold long enuff.

Whew … Where to start? I'll try giving the 'short' answers. I'm almost done with a blog that will go further into the French inflow on English spelling. Once I'm done with a blog I'm working and post it (if my net link can stay up for more than two minutes!), I come back and put the link here and maybe you'll get a better feel for it then.

The Norman-French timeframe is, more or less, Middle English. The short take is that the -our ending is French and came in during that time. Every time one writes the -our ending in English, then you're giving "homage" to France. French and Br.E are the only tungs that note that spelling of the Latin 'color'. Others, like Spanish, write 'color'. Then again, one can always note the Anglo words of 'hue' or 'blee' insted of color.

Many, many other changes were made to spelling in this timeframe as well … a few were good … but most were bad and most were owing to the French spelling rules (orthography) and some of those had to do with the carolina script (it's how 'sum' became 'some').

Next, talking about the Saxons and the Celts is a red herring. I don't speak Gaelic even tho I hav forebears from Scotland and Ireland as well as England and others (I'm sort of a mutt when it comes to that). However, it seems ok for the Gaelic speakers to shun the words of the tung of their erstwhile English overlords in Gaelic. However, its not ok for English speakers to shun the words (and spellings) of the tung of their former French overlords in English? … BTW, I don't hav any problems with Celtic words in English so they get a by too.

It's not only English. A good friend of mine only last year wrappt up over 20 years of work to set the New Testament into Aztec. Now they're working on the Old Testament and he is running into the same thing with the Aztec speakers. They're wanting to clean out as many of the Spanish words as they can … even if it means noting an old Aztec word that few know.

Before the French takeover of England, there were some 600 latinates in English … and not all of those are still with us.

The Takeover, in the end, brought in some 10,000 French/Latin words! Of those, about 75% are still with us. Worse was the mindset, that French/Latin - good; English - so "rude"! This led to another wave of latinates in the "English" Renaissance (1500-1650) when another 10 - 12,000 words came in.

Here's quote from that time:

"Saint Jerom translated the bible into his mother tongue: why may not we also? They will say it cannot be translated into our tongue, it is so rude. It is not so rude as they are false liars. For the Greek tongue agreeth more with the English than with the Latin. And the properties of the Hebrew tongue agreeth a thousand times more with the English than with the Latin."

Speaking of setting the Bible into English, many books of the Bible were put into Old English. An ongoing work that came to a screeching halt when Lucky Bill had a Frenchman put over the church in England … You see, Lucky Bill didn't trust English priests and thought they were helping the athels to rise up against him. This happen'd long before the pope sent out any writs to do so.

There was yet another wave after the Restoration when the Norman begotten monarchy came back from … Where else? … FRANCE!

AnWulf May 7, 2013, 4:40pm

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For 'flexible, pliable', try "bendsome" ...

AnWulf May 7, 2013, 3:51pm

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It should come as no surprize
That a word like apprise
Is not a word that I apprize
It cannot be otherwise

Apprise is in the "The Dictionary of Worthless Words: 3,000 Words to Stop Using Now"

@Skeeter ... As a former Soldier, I'v never heard it said as 'soda' ... It may be heard as sojer, soljer, or even soldjer. My guess ... and it's only a guess ... is that the i = j sound may come from the time with i/j were the same letter and/or since it came from French that to an English ear it sounded like 'soljer or soldjer' ... Kind of the same for sergeant which is said like 'sarjant or sarjent'.

AnWulf April 30, 2013, 9:54pm

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Looks like we can keep 'huge' ... I alway thought it might hav a Teutonic root:

From Middle English huge, from Old French ahuge (“high, lofty, great, large, huge”), from a hoge (“at height”), from a (“at, to”) + hoge (“a hill, height”), from Frankish *haug, *houg (“height, hill”) or Old Norse haugr (“hill”), both from Proto-Germanic *haugaz (“hill, mound”), from Proto-Indo-European *koukos (“hill, mound”). Akin to Old High German houg (“mound”) (whence German Hügel (“hill”)), Icelandic haugr (“mound”), Lithuanian kaukaras (“hill”), Old High German hōh (“high”) (whence German hoch), Old English hēah (“high”)

AnWulf April 26, 2013, 4:57pm

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FWIW, reference as a verb has been written since at least 1837 ... It's old news.

AnWulf April 26, 2013, 4:49pm

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@jayles ... You might find this list a little handier, only be aware that there are a few small mistakes (like he has some in left column that hav Teutonic roots):

@Ængelfolc ... Good link to the book. I'm going to read the whole thing later. He also wonders about the acofrian/recover link. Good to know that I'm not alone on that one!

He made me wonder about cemp/camp ... When one looks up camp, it says that German Kampf and OE cemp(a) come from ur-Germanic which they then say got it from Latin (campus) ... from the PIE root of *kemp ... Whoa ... if that is the PIE root, then I see no reasum why it didn't the ur-Gm didn't come from the PIE rather than thru Latin. Heck, if one borrow'd from the other then my guess is that Latin borrow'd it ... But I think the better way is to say that they both came from the PIE root.

Furthermore, I'll take a bold step forward and guess that the French champion is as much rooted, if not wholly rooted, on a Frank shape of the PIE *kemp rather than only from Latin campus.

AnWulf April 25, 2013, 9:33pm

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Amber wasn't chosen as the root for electricity for its color but for its properties ... You rub amber and you get static electricity. Amber in Latin is electrum (from Greek, ήλεκτρο (ilektro)). From that, Gilbert then made the Latin word electricus, whence electric, whence electricity.

We often call it 'power' or 'current' ... both Latinates. Sometimes one might say the 'light bill' insted of the 'electric bill'. (In Spanish, informally it's call 'luz' (light) insted of electricidad.)

He could hav chose glær and latin it ... glaeric or with a more OE ending, glaerlic, that would hav lookt latinish.

AnWulf April 24, 2013, 4:53am

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@Ængelfolc ... Here's another one for your etym skills. Here is one that has bother'd me for a long time … and I still don't know what to make of it, but I still play with it from time to time.

OE acofrian; p. ode; pp. od To recover; convalesce: -- Wunda opene raþe ácofriað (exalanf), belocene þearle wundiað
[Uorto acoueren his heale, A. R. 364. O. H. Ger. ar-koborōn.]

… swap v for f and you hav 'acover' (ME acoveren, acouren [OE cofrian, corresp. to OHG ir-koborn]) … so some shape of 'cover' is seen in OE and hints at a *cofrian … or is the OHG from a PGmc, from the PIE and thus has nothing to do with the French/Latin? I don't know. … Or the OF 'covir' is from a Frankish word (rather than Latin) from the PGmc or a blend of Frankish and Latin?

Recover is found in AN French with the same meaning as 'acover'. Is 'recover' truly from Latin recuperare or from the OE 'acover' with the re- insted of a-? I think the latter.

AnWulf April 23, 2013, 3:34pm

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Another fetching word I saw yestern ... riff ... upspring unknown ... might be from 'refrain' but more like a back-shaping from riffle.

Here is the passage: ... a brilliant sci-fi '''riff''' on what happens after the end of privacy nearly ruins everything.

interpretation, take, variation

Related Words
version; adaptation, translation

AnWulf April 20, 2013, 8:37pm

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@Jayles ... I don't know if it would help to teach that -fer latinates can also be thought of as the same light as the word for ferry.

Ferian was a well noted verb in OE. (Ger. führen, Dan. føre: Swed. föra: Icel. ferja to transport)
ferian, ferigan, ferigean, fergan; to ferianne; p. ode, ede; pp. od, ed [fer = fær a journey]. I. to carry, convey, bear, lead, conduct;

As was faren (fare ... Ger. fahren, faren)
FARAN, to farenne; ic fare, ðú farest, færest, færst, færsþ, he fareþ, færeþ, færþ, pl. faraþ; p. fór, pl. fóron; pp. faren, A word expressing every kind of going from one place to another, hence I. to go, proceed, travel, march, sail

Infer (from Latin in+fer ... to bring in) means "deduce or conclude (information) from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements: [ with clause ] : from these facts we can infer that crime has been increasing." ... From the thesaurus (Anglo words): gather, understand, take it; read between the lines; informal reckon.

Most ink-horn words were either taken in or put together by Englishmen, true enuff. However, most were done so willy-nilly with the ettle (purpose, intent) of bringing in more latinates ... no other true reasum. Scientific words like electricity (1600 - William Gilbert) were done so with forethought to fill a nook. It was built on the Greek word for amber ( ήλεκτρο (ilektro)). He could hav chosen the Anglo word: glær. But he didn't.

And let's not forget all the French words (most latinates) brought in by Charles and his ilk after the "Restoration". ... They had been living in France during the years of exile.

AnWulf April 20, 2013, 8:34pm

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@Ængelfolc ... I thought that you might find this fetching. It's a slideshow put in a PDF file: from a talk: rtsp:// about a mightlic semitic link to some Germanic/Ur-Germanic words.
It's all guesswork but then what isn't when dealing with such deep roots?

AnWulf April 20, 2013, 8:10pm

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@Jayles - 'term' is likely ok. Even overlookt by the OED and others, there is OE termen, es; m — A term, fixed date

Sometimes yu come full circul (OE circul from Latin circulum) … infer: from Latin inferre ‘bring in, bring about’ (in medieval Latin‘deduce’), from in- ‘into’ + ferre ‘bring’.

To make the same word from OE then in + fer (the root of ferian - to carry, convey, bring ['ferry']) which would giv "infer". So yu'd come up with the same word!

It's late and I'm truly tire'd, but for 'suffer' as to endure; there is 'thole' and 'dree'.

A referee or umpire would be a 'daysman'.
Prefer would be to 'forebear' (not forbear') ... That pesky for-, fore-.

I'd hav to how your noting the others to get a feel for the meaning so that I could find another word. It's seldom that you get a 'one bigness (size) fits all' word swap.

AnWulf April 19, 2013, 7:23pm

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Fetching words:

fet (also means to fetch) ... piece
Webster's 1913: Fet \Fet\, n. [Cf. feat, F. fait, and It. fett? slice, G. fetzen
rag, Icel. fat garment.]
A piece. [Obs.] --Dryton.

sprack - activ, lively, alert ... put forth by Barnes for note insted of "active". (From Old Norse sprækr 'lively', from Proto-Indo-European *sp(h)er(e)g- 'to strew, sprinkle')

AnWulf April 18, 2013, 10:48pm

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@Ængelfolc ... boon also means a favor or request as well as something is helpful or beneficial (OED).

I think I'v said this before. For aft-1066 latinates:
1. Is the word short? One or two syllable word fit right in with the way of English.
2. How far has it come from the true Latin meaning? There are many words ... like 'pay' from Latin 'pac' or pax' for peace that no Roman would acknow.
2. Is it found thruout the Teutonic tungs ... family.
3. Is there another short Anglo word that was bestedded?
4. Who struck the word? Electricity was struck by an Englishman! I wish that he had chose the Anglo word for amber insted of the Greek word but nonetheless, this is an "English" word as it was made by an Englishman who took a Greek word and then Latin'd it. That doesn't mean that I won't pick another Anglo word if it is better but I'm not as hard on scientific upsprings as I am on inkhorn words that were struck willy nilly.

In the Ancrene Wisse (c1200), we find many latinates that are gloss'd with Anglo words as the priest writes out the 'wissen" (guides, rules ... wisse (n.) guide, advisor, rule) for the ancorites! For byspel, the writer glosses 'temptation' with 'fondunge' (OE fandung).

AnWulf April 18, 2013, 10:39pm

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Why is that so many times, huru those Teutonic words that come thru French, the forefast a- or in- is always given as Latin? In OE, these were both Teutonic forefasts ... Why not in Frankish as well?

For byspel ... array from the Oxford Online: Old French arei (noun), areer (verb), based on Latin ad- ‘toward’ + a Germanic base meaning ‘prepare’.

Why is this not Frankish a-? Liken English ashore a- (to, towards) + shore.

a- 2 |eɪ-|
to; toward: aside | ashore.
• in a specified state or manner: asleep | aloud.
• in the process of (an activity): a-hunting.
• on: afoot.
• in: nowadays.
ORIGIN Old English, unstressed form of on.

AnWulf April 17, 2013, 1:38pm

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I hav a long list of "obsolete" words that I'm working thru, like:

Whist, adj. - silent.

When all were whist, king Edward thus bespoke.
Hail Windsore where I some times tooke delight
To hawke and hunt, and backe the proudest horse.
- Peeles Honor of the Garter, 1593.

Keepe the whisht, and thou shalt heare it the sooner.
_Terence in English, 1641.

Wishness, adj. - melancholy
Witeword - a covenant
Withnay - to deny ; to resist

AnWulf April 14, 2013, 4:59pm

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