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July 25, 2018
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If we cast everything into the active voice, there is no confusion.
a) I replaced the old rug with a new one. -> The old rug was replaced with a new one.
b) Plastic bags replaced paper bags. -> Paper bags were replaced by plastic bags.
So, the question is NOT "with" vs "by". The real question is whether
A) Somebody replaces X with Y.
B) Y replaces X.
When cast in the passive voice, (B) becomes "X is replaced by Y".
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