Warsaw Will

Joined: December 3, 2010

Number of comments posted: 1309

Number of votes received: 594

I'm a TEFL teacher working in Poland. I have a blog - Random Idea English - where I do some grammar stuff for advanced students and have the occasional rant against pedantry.

Questions Submitted

fewer / less

Natural as an adverb

tonne vs ton

Tell About

“reach out”

Recent Comments

Re: “into” vs “in to” and “onto” vs. “on to”  •  October 2, 2013, 7:15am  •  0 vote

Correction - I've just realised that I made one basic mistake in my explanation. In the examples I gave, there weren't two prepositions, with expressions like 'keep on to', 'hand in to' the first part

Re: “into” vs “in to” and “onto” vs. “on to”  •  October 2, 2013, 6:38am  •  0 vote

@Chris B - I think you're absolutely right about 'everyday' and 'maybe'; you see these sort of things quite a lot in comments columns. And I quite agree that this is probably more of a native-speaker

Re: Misuse of “lay”  •  October 2, 2013, 6:18am  •  1 vote

We could also add 'your arms' to your list. 'This gets a lot of attention in the States especially, where the difference between transitive 'lay' and intransitive 'lie' gets drummed into young people.

Re: “into” vs “in to” and “onto” vs. “on to”  •  October 2, 2013, 5:08am  •  0 vote

I'm minded (reminded) of the famous (for older people in the UK, and fans of Birmingham City Football Club) Harry Lauder WW1 music hall song - 'Keep Right on to the End of the Road'. 'https://www.

Re: “into” vs “in to” and “onto” vs. “on to”  •  October 2, 2013, 4:50am  •  0 vote

I haven't seen confusion between preposition 'to' and infinitive 'to', but as Brus says, that should be easy enough to explain (provided people know what a to-infinitive is). I think Brus's second

Re: Possessive with acromyms ending in S  •  October 1, 2013, 12:18pm  •  0 vote

@Proper Usage - well, specifically in answer to porsche's question, here are a couple of examples: 1. AWS - Amazon Web Services. In a book called Electric Beanstalk, they explain that this is 'one

Re: Past tense of “text”  •  October 1, 2013, 11:36am  •  0 vote

@Chris Beaver - you were unlucky to land on a page where at least two other English teachers are commenting, and I'm sorry if my previous comment was a bit brusque. Apropos your comment on workéd, whe

Re: Substantial vs. substantive  •  September 30, 2013, 1:07pm  •  1 vote

Hi Richard, some words can definitely take both, but I would probably read 'there's substantial evidence against him' as meaning a lot of evidence, and 'there's substantive evidence against him' as me

Re: Why Don’t We Abolish Irregular Verbs and Nouns?  •  September 30, 2013, 12:36pm  •  0 vote

Sorry, one sentence there was badly worded and implied something I didn't mean. I should have said - ' without interference from pedants, roots purists or top-down reformers'

Re: Substantial vs. substantive  •  September 30, 2013, 9:39am  •  0 vote

To put it another way, you can almost always replace 'substantial' with 'large(amount of)' or 'a lot of', and 'substantive' with 'important', as we can see if we look at their main collocates (words

Re: Why Don’t We Abolish Irregular Verbs and Nouns?  •  September 30, 2013, 5:47am  •  1 vote

Probably most languages have irregular verbs, certainly the one I've come across have; this is a natural part of language development, and I don't think you can come up with one all-defining reason. T

Re: Past tense of “text”  •  September 30, 2013, 5:12am  •  1 vote

@Chris Beaver - why on earth 'as an English teacher' would it drive you crazy to hear a verb pronounced in its normal regular way? As an English teacher you will of course know that there are three wa

Re: You’ve got another think/thing coming  •  September 29, 2013, 9:46am  •  0 vote

For fans of Steptoe and Son, heard in Series 2, Episode 2 - 'The Bath', first broadcast in January 1963: 'If he thinks I'm going to live under the stairs, he's got another think coming' http://www

Re: O’clock  •  September 26, 2013, 5:01pm  •  0 vote

@Budahust - Why do we say 9.30pm, but not half past nine pm? Or five past ten and twenty to eleven, but six minutes past ten and twenty-one minutes to eleven? These are just some of life's little myst

Re: Most-Populous vs. Most-Populated  •  September 23, 2013, 5:27pm  •  1 vote

@Mani - 'would' has lots of uses apart from in conditionals - here I would say that it softens the statement, makes it a little more tentative - it's often used with words like 'think, imagine, say, s

Re: “Over-simplistic”  •  September 23, 2013, 2:26pm  •  0 vote

'does get a bit of a mention in Fowler's 3rd Edition, where he talks of 'sentence adjectives' - sorry, where the editor R.W.Burchfield talks of ... - Fowler had of course been dead for a long time.

Re: “Over-simplistic”  •  September 23, 2013, 2:24pm  •  0 vote

Hi Jim, I teach foreign students, and in British-based EFL there is absolutely no controversy over sentence adverbs and their use is actively taught. What's more, none of the standard British dictiona

Re: If ... were/was  •  September 23, 2013, 5:00am  •  0 vote

@Brus - you might be interested in my blog post on the subjunctive, where, through the use of tables, layout and colour, I think I've been able to put things more clearly than I have here. It also inc

Re: If ... were/was  •  September 23, 2013, 2:45am  •  0 vote

@jayles - Yes, we don't use present subjunctive much in BrE, except when being very formal, and of course we have some pf the same aspects as we have with the past subjunctive. And that is that many f

Re: If ... were/was  •  September 22, 2013, 5:11pm  •  1 vote

@Brus - thank you for your kind remarks and the fact that, although our views are pretty well diametrically opposed, we manage to keep our discussions fairly civilised. So, before you rush off to t

Re: “Over-simplistic”  •  September 22, 2013, 2:10pm  •  1 vote

Hi Jim, off-topic discussions are often the best. As you say, I used 'importantly' to modify a whole clause rather than a verb, but that is exactly one of the functions of an adverb, which can modify

Re: If ... were/was  •  September 22, 2013, 10:58am  •  0 vote

@Brus - I'm a little confused. In your first comment on the 21st, you said that as a nation we British think that grammar is 'daft' and that 'there is to be found in all too many places a seething res

Re: “Over-simplistic”  •  September 22, 2013, 3:40am  •  0 vote

A bit of clumsy editing as usual - an extra 'of' and a missing 'it'!

Re: “Over-simplistic”  •  September 22, 2013, 3:37am  •  0 vote

Hi Jim (?), from Providence (?) - I agree, technically, it just seems a little cold, as it were. But sorry, what do you mean the passive? There's no passive involved there. I simply used the verb 'be'

Re: If ... were/was  •  September 21, 2013, 8:15pm  •  0 vote

@Brus - the subjunctive has been disappearing from British English for a lot longer than just since the educational reforms of the late sixties. Fowler called it largely moribund in 1926, and Somerset

Re: “Over-simplistic”  •  September 21, 2013, 2:29pm  •  0 vote

Hi providencejim, I don't think my problem is specific to 'simplistic', or is really about semantics; I think it goes for a lot of adjectives in predicative position. For example - 'He suggested a nea

Re: “Over-simplistic”  •  September 21, 2013, 3:28am  •  0 vote

Firstly (It's OK Grammarnut, that's standard in BrE), congratulations everyone on making this thread such a calm and civilised oasis. I would just like to follow up on something I wrote earlier. I fin

Re: He and I, me and him  •  September 18, 2013, 5:31pm  •  1 vote

It took you a hell of a long time to work out I was British; I thought 'maths' and my British spelling would have given that away a long time ago. I'll ignore your little dig at the end; I've got sort

Re: Past vs. past perfect  •  September 18, 2013, 4:32pm  •  0 vote

@jayles - I'm not sure that the rest really are a problem, as students might well not use 'if' in their L1 in these circumstances, and I've never had a problem where a student is trying to analyse one

Re: Past vs. past perfect  •  September 18, 2013, 11:58am  •  0 vote

@jayles - Thank you for confirming my suspicions, but why then doesn't that apply to time clauses in 3rd conditional, where we are using a 'real past', not an 'unreal' one? Conditionals cause probl

Re: He and I, me and him  •  September 18, 2013, 7:41am  •  0 vote

Just spotted in a piece by David Baddiel at the Guardian: "Three years ago, me and my brother Ivor made a short film for Kick Racism Out of Football called The Y-Word ..." http://www.theguardian

Re: He and I, me and him  •  September 18, 2013, 7:04am  •  0 vote

@grammarhack - perhaps I'm too old to have recognised that as hip-hop talk, and as hip-hop came out of black culture, not surprisingly it owes a lot to that culture, just as jive-talk came out of blac

Re: Past vs. past perfect  •  September 18, 2013, 4:44am  •  1 vote

Hi Jasper, this is a weird one, and no, I do mean after, although the action started before. Writing about time clauses on my blog I wrote 'Occasionally we use Past Perfect with before to talk about t

Re: He and I, me and him  •  September 18, 2013, 3:58am  •  0 vote

@grammarjack - I don't know what world you live in, but the majority of business correspondence these days is relatively informal (e.g. use of contractions, first names), largely due to the rise in th

Re: He and I, me and him  •  September 17, 2013, 4:58pm  •  0 vote

@grammarhack - First of all, thanks for taking the time to read my post. The reason I say ‘maths’ and not ‘math’, incidentally, is because that’s how it’s referred to just about everywhere in the Engl

Re: He and I, me and him  •  September 17, 2013, 4:41pm  •  0 vote

@jayles - but what I don't understand is why the name on the RSS reader should be different from that on PITE's page. It's not just you; Brus always appears on my reader as Retired Teacher.

Re: He and I, me and him  •  September 17, 2013, 11:03am  •  0 vote

@jayles - I'm confused. When you were just plain jayles, you registered on rss readers as jayles the unwise. And now that you've 'come out' as jayles the unwise, my rss reader is callin you 'jayles th

Re: He and I, me and him  •  September 16, 2013, 3:42pm  •  1 vote

@Over50guy - It's always easier to throw out personal insults than put forward a constructive argument, but we're used to something a bit better on this forum. There are a few regulars here who I ofte

Re: “Over-simplistic”  •  September 16, 2013, 7:28am  •  0 vote

Correction - unambiguously

Re: “Over-simplistic”  •  September 16, 2013, 7:24am  •  0 vote

@providencejim - Glad you liked the Stephen Fry video. I hope that what came across is that it is possible to love and enjoy using language without worrying unduly what other people do or say. You mak

Re: He and I, me and him  •  September 16, 2013, 6:19am  •  0 vote

@Over50guy - except that people don't do it consistently with 'I' and "me". Those of us who are happy to say informally "Me and Dave are off to the pub", will almost always say "David and I are going

Re: Past vs. past perfect  •  September 14, 2013, 1:42pm  •  1 vote

Addendum - there's also one type of construction when we can even use past perfect for something that didn't happen *after* the main event - 'And having told him what she thought of him, she left the

Re: Past vs. past perfect  •  September 14, 2013, 1:15pm  •  1 vote

Well we've got three tenses (or forms if you prefer): past perfect - 'hadn't rung' and '(hadn't) banged' past simple - 'was' past continuous - 'was leaning out' The first thing to sort out is

Re: The Term “Foreigner”  •  September 14, 2013, 8:01am  •  0 vote

Correction - in the first paragraph it should read 'the teaching of English to people living in an English-speaking country whose first language isn't English' without a comma. And me a teacher, too!

Re: The Term “Foreigner”  •  September 14, 2013, 7:59am  •  0 vote

@speedwell2 - just on a technical note, ESL (English as a Second Language) usually refers to the teaching of English to people living in an English-speaking country, whose first language isn't English

Re: “Over-simplistic”  •  September 14, 2013, 3:38am  •  0 vote

@providencejim - well, 'each to his ane (own)' as we say in Scotland. For me, whether something is natural idiomatic English weighs in more strongly than logical analysis. No doubt lots of our favouri

Re: “Over-simplistic”  •  September 13, 2013, 8:03pm  •  0 vote

Addendum - Looking at those examples again, I think 'simplistic' on its own sounds fine before a noun - 'a simplistic solution', but seems to be lacking something when used in predicative position aft

Re: “Over-simplistic”  •  September 13, 2013, 7:55pm  •  0 vote

Personally, I have no problem with 'over-simplistic'. Sure, simplistic already means that something has been oversimplified, but it doesn’t really tell us to what degree, so I don’t see why we shouldn

Re: Fora vs Forums  •  September 12, 2013, 3:06pm  •  0 vote

@Cirsium - I'm surprised at your two groups of linguists. Linguists usually observe language use rather than lay down the law about it. And in any case I would say that anyone saying words with forei

Re: “my” vs. “mine” in multiple owner possessive  •  September 12, 2013, 2:28pm  •  0 vote

@ArjSaj - I take your point about Romeo and Juliet's love where we only need one possessive noun when two people have joint possession of something, but I don't think it works for pronouns. Would you

Re: Substantial vs. substantive  •  September 12, 2013, 2:13pm  •  1 vote

@jayles -I'm sure you're right in a more specialist sense, but I think Noel's got it as a more general use, and that's the one dictionaries give: having a firm basis in reality and so important, me

Re: How many “ands” in a row  •  September 8, 2013, 8:15am  •  0 vote

Firstly, this sounds like spoken English to me rather than written language, and I think Cristina knew perfectly well what the questioner meant and was simply having a bit of a joke. And in any case t

Re: couple vs couple of  •  September 2, 2013, 3:46pm  •  4 votes

@ElktoothChain - My idea of descriptivism is that you make your case and support it with examples, not simply insult people and talk down to them. And perhaps say something specifically relevant to th

Re: Pled versus pleaded  •  August 31, 2013, 4:18am  •  0 vote

@Rosewood11 - one small problem, 'pled' doesn't appear in the KJV, whereas 'pleaded' does, three times, two of which could be likened to the legal sense. Blessed be the LORD, that hath pleaded the

Re: “The plants were withered” Adjective or passive?  •  August 30, 2013, 5:00pm  •  0 vote

@Skeeter Lewis - I think it was a case of partially changing what I'd written and then changing again and not checking it properly, so oops, red face - 'it might matter to jayles and me'

Re: “I’m just saying”  •  August 30, 2013, 1:57pm  •  0 vote

@Nelson - perhaps not authoritative but this might interest you, and seems to agree with what others have said on this thread: 'The origin of “I’m just sayin’” is not clear, but most paths trace it

Re: You’ve got another think/thing coming  •  August 30, 2013, 1:29pm  •  1 vote

@MagicMatt - "So I'm pretty big on correcting other people's grammar when they misspeak." - And you think that's something to be proud of? You make a great play on the fact that the noun is 'though

Re: “The plants were withered” Adjective or passive?  •  August 30, 2013, 12:58pm  •  0 vote

@JJM - It doesn't matter for native speakers in the course of normal conversation or writing. But it might matter to jayles and I as EFL teachers if one of our students asked us to explain. It would a

Re: You’ve got another think/thing coming  •  August 29, 2013, 2:57pm  •  0 vote

@Chris B - You didn't come across as an apostrophe snob - I took it as an observation, not a complaint. I'm happy you're coming round to the idea of 'think', although I realise that for many people, '

Re: “The plants were withered” Adjective or passive?  •  August 29, 2013, 2:48pm  •  0 vote

@jayles d) adjective -plants often eventually wither of their accord; they don't need an agent. You are describing the state of the plant e) passive - the sirocco is the agent - OK, that's an event

Re: If ... were/was  •  August 28, 2013, 12:15pm  •  0 vote

@JJMBallantyne - good to see you back.

Re: You’ve got another think/thing coming  •  August 28, 2013, 12:13pm  •  0 vote

@Chris B - I assume your own was deliberate! Unlike errant commas, which can change the meaning (and one was rumoured to have started a war), errant apostrophes are pretty harmless. In fact, showing t

Re: Joke  •  August 26, 2013, 6:04am  •  0 vote

Sorry to rub it in for American readers, and of course Britain is very grateful for all the help you gave us, but a common description for American soldiers among their British counterparts was 'Overp

Re: You’ve got another think/thing coming  •  August 25, 2013, 10:20am  •  0 vote

@I'm late - sorry, you lost a bit of your name in the last one. As I'm British, just out of interest, and not trying to prove anything, I had a look at the graph for British books, where the diffe

Re: You’ve got another think/thing coming  •  August 25, 2013, 10:08am  •  0 vote

@I'm - of course, they're both idioms, so I don't think the verb / noun thing is that important, really. Anyway, as I said before, I'm fine with people saying 'thing', although personally I think they

Re: You’ve got another think/thing coming  •  August 25, 2013, 7:08am  •  0 vote

@I'm late - Doesn't exactly look as though it's dying out to me - http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=got+another+think+coming%2Cgot+another+thing+coming&year_start=1900&year_end=2008&corpus=

Re: You’ve got another think/thing coming  •  August 25, 2013, 7:04am  •  0 vote

@I'm late - "The old version ... uses a word which has been phased out of the language in that form" - I'll have to have a think about that.

Re: If ... were/was  •  August 24, 2013, 11:46am  •  1 vote

Well, you learn something new every day; what a fascinating insight this is. I'm almost tempted to look just to see about the buttered wife - sounds like something from 'Last Tango in Paris'.

Re: You’ve got another think/thing coming  •  August 24, 2013, 3:56am  •  0 vote

Oops - a wayward double negative - the second sentence should obviously read - 'But I don't understand why you think 'think' wouldn't work in your example'

Re: You’ve got another think/thing coming  •  August 24, 2013, 3:54am  •  0 vote

@Rob Schmidt - obviously a lot of people are quite happy with the 'thing' version, and that's fine. But I don't understand why you don't think 'think' wouldn't work in your example. Surely an expectat

Re: “I’m just saying”  •  August 22, 2013, 6:21pm  •  0 vote

@Brus - well, we can certainly agree on the strange nature of both contributions, and as it looks as though peace has broken out between us, have a good weekend. :) Incidentally, I hardly ever look at

Re: “I’m just saying”  •  August 22, 2013, 6:33am  •  0 vote

Sorry, went a bid mad on typos there.

Re: “I’m just saying”  •  August 22, 2013, 6:31am  •  0 vote

@Brus - of course we teach our students about formality, but most of us use formal language very rarely. Actually with my students, who were originally taught fairly formally, it's getting them to red

Re: Adverbs better avoided?  •  August 21, 2013, 3:45pm  •  1 vote

" I had another writer who tried to eliminate all passive usage from my work." Another piece of nonsense. Many of the people who criticise the passive mistake non-passive structures for passives, don'

Re: “I’m just saying”  •  August 21, 2013, 1:35pm  •  0 vote

@Brus - ah, it's sparring time again. I'm afraid it's a shibboleth that 'that' can't be used for people in defining (restrictive) relative clauses. What's more, it's the writers of certain American st

Re: LEGOs — Is the Plural form of LEGO incorrect?  •  August 20, 2013, 1:57pm  •  1 vote

@Capitan Typo - in the spirit of the goodwill you have so generously fostered, and in respect for curmudgeons everywhere, including me sometimes, I'll try and refrain from making valid points in the

Re: Do’s and Don’t's  •  August 9, 2013, 7:21pm  •  1 vote

@copy editor - there's a whole English-speaking world outside that of professional copy editors, or of those writing academic copy for journals that follow CMOS rules. Outside the US, even. A publishe

Re: If ... were/was  •  August 8, 2013, 6:05am  •  0 vote

@ChrisB - I'm an English teacher (TEFL) and I'd never even heard of an agent noun before today. An agent in passive constructions, yes, but not an agent noun, which I had to look up. Well, you learn s

Re: Hi all vs. Hi everybody  •  August 8, 2013, 5:35am  •  1 vote

From a British perspective, I think 'Hi everyone', but 'Dear all' sound the most natural. As for capitalisation, according to The Gregg Reference Manual, which I understand is pretty influential i

Re: Do’s and Don’t's  •  August 8, 2013, 5:18am  •  1 vote

@Chris B - Thank for the compliment. Well, you're the first person to notice the dont's, which I'm afraid is a mistake (I'd like to say misprint!) , and one which I seem to have repeated several times

Re: If ... were/was  •  August 7, 2013, 2:07pm  •  0 vote

@dave - sorry but I don't agree. I'm British and I often say things like 'If it wasn't for the such-and-such, I'd do such-and-such'. In fact, the subjunctive is used rather more in the States than in

Re: If ... were/was  •  August 7, 2013, 7:23am  •  2 votes

@jayles - I think Northern English dialect use of 'were', as in 'He were in t'pub' (He was in the pub) is a bit of a red herring here, as it has nothing to do with the subjunctive or hypothetical situ

Re: Do’s and Don’t's  •  August 6, 2013, 3:34pm  •  0 vote

Perhaps it's time to blow my own trumpet - http://random-idea-english.blogspot.com/2011/01/dos-and-donts-of-apostrophe-use.html

Re: “further” vs. “farther”  •  August 4, 2013, 4:27am  •  0 vote

@bubbha - and a lot of American commentators will swear blind that this is set in stone, so if writing for an American audience, it's perhaps better to stick to it. But this is rather an artificial ru

Re: Try and  •  August 3, 2013, 11:05am  •  0 vote

@Chris B - it probably depends on who the people are. I'm not so sure about spelling, which is a bit more fixed, but if enough educated speakers of Standard English use a word or phrase a certain way,

Re: Try and  •  August 2, 2013, 12:52pm  •  0 vote

@DC Howard - I don't want to knock you, because I broadly agree with you as regards usage, but I'm puzzled by one or two things. If something is idiomatically acceptable, how can it be 'not strictly c

Re: why does english have capital letters?  •  July 26, 2013, 12:15pm  •  0 vote

@aragond - I'm used to grammar lectures on this forum, but for a joke? It's not meant to be proper English. It's a play on words and is totally improper English! See my previous comment.

Re: Resume, resumé, or résumé?  •  July 25, 2013, 3:37pm  •  0 vote

On my keyboard (no separate numerical pad) , there is a ^ sign above the 6. So I just do - shift + 6 + e - which gives me ê. As simple as that.

Re: Resume, resumé, or résumé?  •  July 24, 2013, 5:38pm  •  1 vote

Hi Brus, I wasn't feeling particularly grumpy; I was trying to find a compromise. Here's you and b.r.whitney both insisting on your particular version being the only correct one, whereas you are both

Re: cannot vs. can not  •  July 24, 2013, 4:30pm  •  2 votes

@Abootty - I don't know where you got that one from, as 'cannot' is the most common on both sides of the Atlantic: OED (UK) - "cannot is the ordinary modern way of writing can not" AskOxford (UK)

Re: Resume, resumé, or résumé?  •  July 24, 2013, 3:50am  •  1 vote

I wonder why some of you seem to think you know better than the standard dictionaries. (In fact I wonder if some of you even bother checking a dictionary before declaring that such-and-such is the onl

Re: Pled versus pleaded  •  July 23, 2013, 5:33pm  •  1 vote

It's certainly true that the majority of one syllable -ead / -eed verbs with that particular sound take an -ed form in the past - lead, read (in sound), bleed, breed, feed etc. But there quite a f

Re: “in regards to”  •  July 22, 2013, 1:09pm  •  0 vote

Yes, "as regards something/somebody" and "in/with/regard to something/somebody" are both formal, but sometimes in business letters or reports they're difficult to avoid. Sometimes in informal spoken l

Re: “There can be only one” or “there can only be one”?  •  July 21, 2013, 5:48pm  •  2 votes

I agree that adverbs normally go after "be" when there is no auxiliary, and we wouldn't usually say "There only is one choice" (although we might if we were stressing "is"). But here we have a modal "

Re: cannot vs. can not  •  July 18, 2013, 1:37pm  •  1 vote

@nadibes - The problem for me is that your example "I was going to X, but if you don't want me to I can not" doesn't sound particularly natural to me. Wouldn't we be more likely to say "but if you don

Re: “There can be only one” or “there can only be one”?  •  July 17, 2013, 11:37am  •  4 votes

There's a slight but well-known conflict with 'only', as purist grammarians say that any adverb, including 'only', should go next to the word it modifies, whereas most linguists and usage guides seem

Re: anything vs. everything  •  July 16, 2013, 4:43pm  •  0 vote

@Felix - in this context, I'd say none.

Re: Does “Who knows” need a question mark?  •  July 15, 2013, 12:10pm  •  0 vote

Porsche is of course right that intonation doesn't necessarily go up at the end of questions, isn't he? - I'm not really asking a question with that tag - 'isn't he?', and the intonation would usually

Re: Chary  •  July 15, 2013, 11:50am  •  0 vote

A troll that has an orange traffic light warning from Web of Trust, what's more (it's a games site).

Re: Capitalization of dog breeds  •  July 14, 2013, 4:34am  •  0 vote

I don't claim to be any expert on dog breeds, but judging by what I've seen at the biggest dog-related websites,yes. Why not try a bit of Googling to check Here's the relevant page (on gundogs) at the

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